Our research under this stream focuses on...

Budget Planning: looking at process for budget planning, how budget calendars are developed and what is contained within them, how countries produce budget strategies and launch the budget process, how budget information is collected, how budget negotiations occur with line Ministries, the roles of budget analysts, how performance budgeting can work and in what order reforms in PFM should be sequenced.

Treasury and Budget Execution: looking at the mechanisms and processes, and information systems, used for budget execution, examining problems in budget execution processes, how this interacts with cash management, and the degree of control over line Ministries exerted from the center, how countries process payments and management the payroll etc processes.  Also looking at fiscal and financial reporting, how countries impose controls, how transfers and virements occur, how charts of accounts are developed and other issues in treasury management.

Cash Managementlooking at how countries manage cash flow forecasting, cash planning with Ministries, how cash management committees function, how countries introduce and utilise treasury bills, how countries manage accounts and introduce treasury single accounts, and other issues related to the management of cash, and it's overlap with Treasury.

Other PFM Issues: looking at issues related to planning PFM reforms, performance management, procurement, revenue administration, audit and other issues.